In over 1,000 years from the Tang and Song dynasties when Islam was introduced into China up until 1949 when New China was founded, Chinese Muslims had enjoyed many glories, and were subjected to misfortunes as well. In the Qing Dynasty and the period when warlords took over the throne, Muslims (in the Northwest in particular) were subjected to brutal persecutions and killings, and lived in precarious circumstances. After New China was founded in 1949, the people's government practiced a policy of ethnic equality and religious freedom. It gave Chinese Muslims of all nationalities a new life and made them truly enjoy equality in economics, politics and ethnic affairs, and religious freedom. The national census in 2000 shows that there are 10 minority groups with a total population of over 20 million in China that take Islam as their national faith. They are distributed mainly in Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Yunnan and Henan, while there is also a considerable Muslim population in Shaanxi, Hebei and Shandong. Nowadays, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, Muslims of all ethnicities in China work hard in all walks of life, striving for ethnic unity, social stability and prosperity.