In 1771, Torgut of China's Clot Mongols who lived in Volga drainage, carried out an armed uprising led by their leader Ubasi Khan and returned back eastward to China after breaking through Czar's Russian blockages, succeeded in escaping from Czar Russian's cruel dominion and national oppression. This eastward returning has become the most heroic and hardest nationality immigration in humankind history which has shocked China and abroad.
The 5th of January in 1771 was the most glorious memorial day in Torgut history. On that day, Ubasi told all of the herders Czar Russia's monstrous crimes of cruel dominion and called everybody: the only way was to fight against Russia and return back to China. At once, the herders agreed with powerful shouts above the vast Volga grassland.
The mighty armies of 170,000 in 32,000 tents led by Ubasi burned their tents, things that could not carry and Ubasi Khan's wooden palace, astonishingly left from the living camp and stepped on the dangerous route of returning in thousand miles. Hundreds of thousands women, children and the elderly took the horse carriages, camels and sleighs, guarded by warriors on horses with arms, left the snowy Volga grassland.
The Torgut on route were blocked by Cossack in the front and chased by Russian armies at the back. Under such severe situations, though, Ubasi organized the uprising armies orderly; a powerfully elite army was ordered to be the pioneer,followed by women, the elderly and the weak, carriages, and the army supplies and gear, backed by 20,000 cavalrymen led by Ubasi himself.
Statue of Ubasi, the hero of Torgut returning to China
On the route of the long march, led by Ubasi, Torgut people bravely fought against the enemies, and conquered multiple hardships and dangers. After many times of furious fighting,many of Torgut people sacrificed, and lots of livestock died.The freezing winter passed, came the hot summer; during the long journey, they suffered with illness and starvations,the most tied army still supported the elderly and carried the youngsters, struggling to move on among hardships. When they reached Tuerjie River, they suddenly encountered the severe block of 20,000 Russian armies. In this severe situation, Ubasi summoned up chiefs of all tribes to unify in resisting against the enemy and hang on for victory.
With the common target and determined for victory, Torgut people bravely fought against the enemies and defeated the blocking army, succeeded in crossing Tuerjie River. After tactfully escaping from the chasing enemy, they quickly ran southward into Yixun Grassland, crossed the small castle at the Russian border Geletoula, and finally stepped on China's territory. In July, 1771, when they came near Tamuhakalun south-eastof Ili, the army of 170,000 when they started now left only around 70,000. They were warmly received by all nationalities of Xinjiang and Qing Dynasty government, which settled them down in the present Bortala and Bayangol prefectures.