Changji Prefecture has long history, which is historically called "Tingzhou". As early as in Neolithic Period, there were hominids hunting along Mulei River. 3,000 -4,000 years from now, there were human beings living in the territory. In 60 BC, the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-25 AD) set up the Protectorate of the Western Regions (presently Jimsar County of Changji Prefecture); in the 14th year of Zhenguan of the Tang Dynasty (640 AD), Emperor Taizong of Tang set up "Tingzhou" in Jimsar County, then the vital town in the west territory; in 702 AD, Wu Zetian set up Protectorate Belting in ruling the broad area north and west of Tianshan to the east and north of Caspian Sea. In the 10th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu (1884), Xinjiang was set as a province and counties within the territory were administrated by Dihua Prefecture. In 1949, after PRC was founded, Changji Hui Autonomous Region was set up on July 15, 1954, which was changed into Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture on March 11, 1955.
Ruins of the Protectorate Belting is now put under the special protection of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, situated at the south of Junggar Basin, is a strategically important place connecting the south and north territories, closing to Hami area in the east connecting Shihezi City in the west, adjacent with Turpan Prefecture and Bayangol Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in the south, connecting Tacheng and Altay Prefecture in the north,and bordering with Mongolian in north east. It is embracing Urumqi in three sides of east, west and north. Called "the back garden of Urumqi", it has unique location advantage. According to historical records, this one of the areas that accepted Han cultures in the earliest time, and the inescapable way to central Asia and several countries in Europe in the new north road of the world famous ancient "Silk Road".