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II Searching for the Living Fossils of the History of Xinjiang
(Tianshannet) Updated: 2010-July-27 12:24:03


Kashgar is famous in the world for its long history. As early as in the Neolithic Period, there were people living and multiplying here. About 2,100 years ago, Zhang Qian passed here when he was on the journey to the Western Regions, and, for the first time in history, reported it with information to the Western Han government, in 60 BC, Han Dynasty set Protectorate the Western Regions in Xinjiang, and as one part of the Western Regions, Kahsi was officially put into China's territory.

From the end of the Eastern Han to the beginning of Tang Dynasty, Shuie took over the surrounding small castle states, becoming the most powerful kingdom in the region. After Tang Dynasty unified the Western Regions, Shule Dudu Fu was set here, ruling 15 states. The Pamir Plateau sub-office was set in today's Taxkorgan for the administration of areas west of Pamir Plateau.

Alley in the downtown of the old Kashgar city

In 840, a branch of Uighur (historically called Uighur in west of Pamir Plateau) moving westward to the central Asia's grassland gradually got stronger, and set up Qarakhanid Dynasty with the capital in Balashagun in Chuhe Drainage. Later, they crossed over Pamir Plateau and entered into Tarim Basin. In 944, in order to spread Islam in south of the Tianshan Mountains,Satuq Boghra Khan set the capital in Kashgar, and, in the name of "Jihad", started a Iongqasting religious war against the then two powerful Buddhism Powers of Yutian Kingdom and Xizhou Uighur Kingdom. After a bloody war lasting for several tens of years, Qarakhanid Dynasty finally conquered Yutian, but Xizhou Uighur succeeded in resisting it. In 1218, Mongols army conquered regions of the south of Xinjiang, and set this area as the feudatory of Qagatay, second son of Genghis khan.At the end of Yuan Dynasty, Qagatay Khanate was separated into the east and west part. In 1347, the descendent of Qagatay Khanate Tughlugh Timur was supported as the Khan to set up the east Qagatay Khanate, and Kashgar at the time belonged to the territory of Qagatay Khanate. In 1514, the descendant of Qagatai Said took Shache as the center to set Yarkant Khanate, which was from Jiayuguan in the east, Wakhan area in the west, reaching Kunlun in the south and bordering the range of the Tianshan Mountains. In 1678, led by Apakehuojia, chief of White Mountain Sector in southern Xinjiang, Junggar Khan Galdan waged a war which wiped out Yarkant Khanate, and Kashgar was then under the rule of Galdan. in 1759, Qing Dynasty pacified the insurgences by Burhanidin and Hojajahan, unified the south and north of the Tianshan Mountains, and the counselor office was set in Kashgar to take charge of the affairs in the eight cities in the south of Xinjiang.

At the mid of 19th century, central Asia became the area of rivalry by British Empire and Russian czar. In 1865, backed by Great Britain and Russia, central Asia's Kohand Khanate military officer Yakub Beg invaded the southern territory, and occupied Kashgar in September, 1865. For a consecutive seven days,he led his army slaughtering civilians and gradually occupied the broad areas in the southern territory and set up "Yatta Shahar" regime. In 1878, Zuo Zongtang wiped out Yakub Beg with his army. In 1884, Xinjiang was officially set as a province, and Kashgar Counselor Office was changed into Kashgar Prefecture. In 1929, in the period of ROC government, Kashgar Prefecture was changed as Kashgar Administrative Prefecture with the Kashgar administrative officer. In 1943, Kashgar Administrative Prefecture was divided into Kashgar and Shache Special Supervisory District, each with a special supervisory office. In 1949, after the foundation of PRC, it has been early and later served as the place for the southern territory district and Kashgar district of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,Kashgar City has been their political, economic and cultural center as well as one of the famous historical and cultural cities in Xinjiang.

The elderly people are watching performancc of muqam in Shufu County, Kashgar

Festival celebration

(SOURCES:)Editor: zhaoqian
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